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Toolkit to develop a National Strategic Plan for TB prevention, care and control: Methodology on how to develop a national strategic pla

Publication year: 
2014
Corporate author: 
World Health Organisation
Publication details: 
New York; WHO, 2014
Abstract:

TB is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It typically affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can affect other sites as well (extrapulmonary TB). The disease is spread in the air when people who are sick with pulmonary TB expel bacteria, for example by coughing. Overall, a relatively small proportion of people infected with M. tuberculosis will develop TB disease.
However, the probability of developing TB is much higher among people infected with HIV. TB is also more common among men than women, and affects mainly adults in the most economically productive age groups.The most common method for diagnosing TB worldwide is sputum smear microscopy (developed more than 100 years ago), in which bacteria are observed in sputum samples examined under a microscope. Following recent breakthroughs in TB diagnostics, the use of rapid molecular tests to
diagnose TB and drug-resistant TB is increasing. In countries with more developed laboratory capacity, cases of TB are also diagnosed via culture methods (the current reference standard).